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A hetero-structure laser diode model
XY Laser Module
Harold’s XY Laser Module extends Harold’s algorithm so that the lateral structure of laser devices is accounted for. It uses the same physical model as a Harold 1d simulation but solves the electrical/optical/thermal problem on a 2D (XY) grid, the starting point being a 2D cross-section, rather than a single 1D epilayer stack. In addition, it supports insulating layers and graded etching and allows n and p-contacts can be on the top of the structure. All this makes it ideal for the detailed modelling of simple ridge waveguide and SOI hybrid laser structures alike.
The XY Laser Module uses the Harold’s existing layers editor, trap definition editor and mesh policy editor, making it easy to adapt and use existing Harold projects to set up XY simulations. The XY Laser Module also has the same execution modes as a Harold 1D simulation: Test mode (for quick diagnostics), Isothermal (pulsed), and Self-Heating (CW) modes.
The XY Laser Module’s cross-section editor allows you to fully define a laser’s 2D cross-section. A cross-section is composed of a number of vertical slices, of varying widths, each of which uses its own (or a shared) epitaxial layer structure. Slices can be etched to varying depths and can also have graded etching. Each slice can have its top or bottom connected to the bias contact, the ground contact, or no contact at all.
In addition to Per Bias results (i.e. vs. bias current/voltage/current density), Harold XY produces 2D lateral-vertical profiles of various quantities, including:
Comparison with PICWave, Harold and Harold EAM